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IsLactobacillusGram-Positive? A Case Study ofLactobacillus iners썸네일
etc.
Microorganisms 29 Jun 2020

Lactobacillus iners is the most prevalent bacterial species in the human vaginal microbiome, and there have been few reports of its Gram-negative stain appearances despite the fact that the genus Lactobacillus is universally described as Gram-positive. Here, using transmission electron microscopy, we reveal that the thinness of the cell wall (17.39 ± 0.8 nm) gives the Gram-negative stain appearance, which can lead to over-diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Moreover, comparative genome analysis identified four genes commonly absent in L. iners genomes that might contribute to this phenotypic difference. We suggest that, along with the several niche-specific attributes identified, this unique feature may contribute to the species' distinguished capability to thrive as the predominant species in the fluctuating vaginal environment as well.

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Genome-Wide Identification of Discriminative Genetic Variations in Beef and Dairy Cattle via an Information-Theoretic Approach썸네일
Genomics
Genes 22 Jun 2020

Analyzing the associations between genotypic changes and phenotypic traits on a genome-wide scale can contribute to understanding the functional roles of distinct genetic variations during breed development. We performed a whole-genome analysis of Angus and Jersey cattle breeds using conditional mutual information, which is an information-theoretic method estimating the conditional independency among multiple factor variables. The proposed conditional mutual information-based approach allows breed-discriminative genetic variations to be explicitly identified from tens of millions of SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) positions on a genome-wide scale while minimizing the usage of prior knowledge. Using this data-driven approach, we identified biologically relevant functional genes, including breed-specific variants for cattle traits such as beef and dairy production. The identified lipid-related genes were shown to be significantly associated with lipid and triglyceride metabolism, fat cell differentiation, and muscle development. In addition, we confirmed that milk-related genes are involved in mammary gland development, lactation, and mastitis-associated processes. Our results provide the distinct properties of Angus and Jersey cattle at a genome-wide level. Moreover, this study offers important insights into discovering unrevealed genetic variants for breed-specific traits and the identification of genetic signatures of diverse cattle breeds with respect to target breed-specific properties.

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