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게시물 검색
Changes in Cell Membrane Fatty Acid Composition of Streptococcus thermophilus in Response to Gradually Increasing Heat Temperature썸네일
etc.
J. Microbiol Biotechnol. 28 May 2020

In this study, a method of heat adaptation was implemented in an attempt to increase the upper thermal threshold of two Streptococcus thermophilus found in South Korea and identified the alterations in membrane fatty acid composition to adaptive response to heat. In order to develop heat tolerant lactic acid bacteria, heat treatment was continuously applied to bacteria by increasing temperature from 60°C until the point that no surviving cell was detected. Our results indicated significant increase in heat tolerance of heat-adapted strains compared to the wild type (WT) strains. In particular, the survival ratio of basically low heat-tolerant strain increased even more. In addition, the strains with improved heat tolerance acquired cross protection, which improved their survival ratio in acid, bile salts and osmotic conditions. A relation between heat tolerance and membrane fatty acid composition was identified. As a result of heat adaptation, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) and C18:1 relative concentration were decreased. C6:0 in only heatadapted strains and C22:0 in only the naturally high heat tolerant strain were detected. These results support the hypothesis, that the consequent increase of SFA ratio is a cellular response to environmental stresses such as high temperatures, and it is able to protect the cells from acid, bile salts and osmotic conditions via cross protection. This study demonstrated that the increase in heat tolerance can be utilized as a mean to improve bacterial tolerance against various environmental stresses.

Abstract +
Complete Genome ofLactobacillus inersKY Using Flongle Provides Insight Into the Genetic Background of Optimal Adaption to Vaginal Econiche썸네일
Genomics
Front. Microbiol. 26 May 2020

Despite the importance of Lactobacillus iners and its unique characteristics for the study of vaginal adaption, its genome and genomic researches for identifying molecular backgrounds of these specific phenotypes are still limited. In this study, the first complete genome of L. iners was constructed using a cost-effective long-read sequencing platform, Flongle from Oxford Nanopore, and comparative genome analysis was conducted using a total of 1,046 strain genomes from 10 vaginal Lactobacillus species. Single-molecule sequencing using Flongle effectively resolved the limitation of the 2nd generation sequencing technologies in dealing with genomic regions of high GC contents, and comparative genome analysis identified three potential core genes (INY, ZnuA, and hsdR) of L. iners which was related to its specific adaption to the vaginal environment. In addition, we performed comparative prophage analysis for 1,046 strain genomes to further identify the species specificity. The number of prophages in L. iners genomes was significantly smaller than other vaginal Lactobacillus species, and one of the specific genes (hsdR) was suggested as the means for defense against bacteriophage. The first complete genome of L. iners and the three specific genes identified in this study will provide useful resources to further expand our knowledge of L. iners and its specific adaption to the vaginal econiche.

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