Since domestication, the genome landscape of cattle has been changing due to natural and artificial selection forces resulting in several general and specialized cattle breeds of the world. Identifying genomic regions affected due to these forces in livestock gives an insight into the history of selection for economically important traits and genetic adaptation to specific environments of the populations under consideration. This study explores the genes/genomic regions under selection in relation to the phenotypes of Holstein, Hanwoo, and N’Dama cattle breeds using Tajima’s D, XP-CLR, and XP-EHH population statistical methods. The whole genomes of 10 Holstein (South Korea), 11 Hanwoo (South Korea), and 10 N’Dama (West Africa?Guinea) cattle breeds re-sequenced to ~11x coverage and retained 37 million SNPs were used for the study. Selection signature analysis revealed 441, 512, and 461 genes under selection from Holstein, Hanwoo, and N’Dama cattle breeds, respectively. Among all these, seven genes including ARFGAP3, SNORA70, and other RNA genes were common between the breeds. From each of the gene lists, significant functional annotation cluster terms including milk protein and thyroid hormone signaling pathway (Holstein), histone acetyltransferase activity (Hanwoo), and renin secretion (N’Dama) were enriched. Genes that are related to the phenotypes of the respective breeds were also identified. Moreover, significant breed-specific missense variants were identified in CSN3, PAPPA2 (Holstein), C1orf116 (Hanwoo), and COMMD1 (N’Dama) genes. The genes identified from this study provide an insight into the biological mechanisms and pathways that are important in cattle breeds selected for different traits of economic significance.