As probiotics play an important role in maintaining a healthy gut flora environment through antitoxin activity and inhibition of pathogen colonization, they have been of interest to the medical research community for quite some time now. Probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, which can be found in fermented food, are of particular interest given their easy accessibility. We performed whole genome sequencing and genomic analysis on a GB-LP1 strain of L. plantarum isolated from Korean traditional fermented food; this strain is well known for its functions in immune response, suppression of pathogen growth and anti-toxin effects. The complete genome sequence of GB-LP1 is a single chromosome of 3,040,388 bp with 2,899 predicted open reading frames. Genomic analysis of GB-LP1 revealed two CRISPR regions and genes showing accelerated evolution which may have antibiotic and antitoxin functions. The aim of the present study was to predict strain specific genomic characteristics and assess the potential of this new strain as lactic acid bacteria at the genomic level using in-silico analysis. These results provide insight into the L. plantarum species as well as confirm the possibility of its utility as a candidate probiotic.
Lactobacillus plantarum is found in various environmental niches such as in the gastrointestinal tract of an animal host or a fermented food. This species isolated from a certain environment is known to possess a variety of properties according to inhabited environment's adaptation. However, a causal relationship of a genetic factor and phenotype affected by a specific environment has not been systematically comprehended. L. plantarum GB-LP3 strain was isolated from Korean traditional fermented vegetable and the whole genome of GB-LP3 was sequenced. Comparative genome analysis of GB-LP3, with other 14 L. plantarum strains, was conducted. In addition, genomic island regions were investigated. The assembled whole GB-LP3 genome contained a single circular chromosome of 3,206,111bp with the GC content of 44.7%. In the phylogenetic tree analysis, GB-LP3 was in the closest distance from ZJ316. The genomes of GB-LP3 and ZJ316 have the high level of synteny. Functional genes that are related to prophage, bacteriocin, and quorum sensing were found through comparative genomic analysis with ZJ316 and investigation of genomic islands. dN/dS analysis identified that the gene coding for phosphonate ABC transporter ATP-binding protein is evolutionarily accelerated in GB-LP3. Our study found that potential candidate genes that are affected by environmental adaptation in Korea traditional fermented vegetable.
Indigenous cattle in Africa have adapted to various local environments to acquire superior phenotypes that enhance their survival under harsh conditions. While many studies investigated the adaptation of overall African cattle, genetic characteristics of each breed have been poorly studied.
We performed the comparative genome-wide analysis to assess evidence for subspeciation within species at the genetic level in trypanotolerant N’Dama cattle. We analysed genetic variation patterns in N’Dama from the genomes of 101 cattle breeds including 48 samples of five indigenous African cattle breeds and 53 samples of various commercial breeds. Analysis of SNP variances between cattle breeds using wMI, XP-CLR, and XP-EHH detected genes containing N’Dama-specific genetic variants and their potential associations. Functional annotation analysis revealed that these genes are associated with ossification, neurological and immune system. Particularly, the genes involved in bone formation indicate that local adaptation of N’Dama may engage in skeletal growth as well as immune systems.
Our results imply that N’Dama might have acquired distinct genotypes associated with growth and regulation of regional diseases including trypanosomiasis. Moreover, this study offers significant insights into identifying genetic signatures for natural and artificial selection of diverse African cattle breeds.
Bacillus cereus is well known as a gastrointestinal pathogen that causes food-borne illness. In the present study, we sequenced the complete genome of B. cereus FORC_013 isolated from fried eel in South Korea. To extend our understanding of the genomic characteristics of FORC_013, we conducted a comparative analysis with the published genomes of other B. cereus strains.
We fully assembled the single circular chromosome (5,418,913 bp) and one plasmid (259,749 bp); 5511 open reading frames (ORFs) and 283 ORFs were predicted for the chromosome and plasmid, respectively. Moreover, we detected that the enterotoxin (NHE, HBL, CytK) induces food-borne illness with diarrheal symptom, and that the pleiotropic regulator, along with other virulence factors, plays a role in surviving and biofilm formation. Through comparative analysis using the complete genome sequence of B. cereus FORC_013, we identified both positively selected genes related to virulence regulation and 224 strain-specific genes of FORC_013.
Through genome analysis of B. cereus FORC_013, we identified multiple virulence factors that may contribute to pathogenicity. These results will provide insight into further studies regarding B. cereus pathogenesis mechanism at the genomic level.
The Korean native horse (Jeju horse) is one of the most important animals in Korean historical, cultural, and economical viewpoints. In the early 1980s, the Jeju horse was close to extinction. The aim of this study is to explore the phylogenomics of Korean native horse focusing on spatio-temporal dynamics. We determined complete mitochondrial genome sequences for the first Korean native (n?=?6) and additional Mongolian (n?=?2) horses. Those sequences were analyzed together with 143 published ones using Bayesian coalescent approach as well as three different phylogenetic analysis methods, Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and neighbor-joining methods. The phylogenomic trees revealed that the Korean native horses had multiple origins and clustered together with some horses from four European and one Middle Eastern breeds. Our phylogenomic analyses also supported that there was no apparent association between breed or geographic location and the evolution of global horses. Time of the most recent common ancestor of the Korean native horse was approximately 13,200?63,200 years, which was much younger than 0.696 My of modern horses. Additionally, our results showed that all global horse lineages including Korean native horse existed prior to their domestication events occurred in about 6000?10,000 years ago. This is the first study on phylogenomics of the Korean native horse focusing on spatio-temporal dynamics. Our findings increase our understanding of the domestication history of the Korean native horses, and could provide useful information for horse conservation projects as well as for horse genomics, emergence, and the geographical distribution.
Congenital cataracts can occur as a non-syndromic isolated ocular disease or as a part of genetic syndromes accompanied by a multi-systemic disease. Approximately 50% of all congenital cataract cases have a heterogeneous genetic basis. Here, we describe three generations of a family with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern and common complex phenotypes, including bilateral congenital cataracts, short stature, macrocephaly, and minor skeletal anomalies. We did not find any chromosomal aberrations or gene copy number abnormalities using conventional genetic tests; accordingly, we conducted whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify disease-causing genetic alterations in this family. Based on family WES data, we identified a novel BRD4 missense mutation as a candidate causal variant and performed cell-based experiments by ablation of endogenous BRD4 expression in human lens epithelial cells. The protein expression levels of connexin 43, p62, LC3BII, and p53 differed significantly between control cells and cells in which endogenous BRD4 expression was inhibited. We inferred that a BRD4 missense mutation was the likely disease-causing mutation in this family. Our findings may improve the molecular diagnosis of congenital cataracts and support the use of WES to clarify the genetic basis of complex diseases.
Background Abalones are large marine snails in the family Haliotidae and the genus Haliotis belonging to the class Gastropoda of the phylum Mollusca. The family Haliotidae contains only one genus, Haliotis, and this single genus is known to contain several species of abalone. With 18 additional subspecies, the most comprehensive treatment of Haliotidae considers 56 species valid . Abalone is an economically important fishery and aquaculture animal which is considered a highly-prized seafood delicacy. The total global supply of abalone has increased fivefold since 1970’s and farm productions increased explosively from 50 mt to 103,464 mt in the past forty years. Additionally, researchers have recently focused on Abalone given their reported tumor suppression effect. However, despite the valuable features of this marine animal, no genomic information is available for Haliotidae family and related research is still limited.
Findings In order to construct the H.discus hannai genome, a total of 580G base pairs using Illumina and Pacbio platforms were generated with 322-fold coverage based on the 1.8Gb estimated genome size of H.discus hannai using flow cytometry. The final genome assembly consisted of 1.86Gb with 35,450 scaffolds (>2kb). GC content level was 40.51%, and the N50 length of assembled scaffolds was 211kb. We identified 29,449 genes using Evidence Modeler based on the gene information from ab initio prediction, protein homology with known genes and transcriptome evidence of RNA-seq.
Conclusions Here we present the first Haliotidae genome, Haliotis discus hannai, with sequencing data, assembly, and gene annotation information. This will be helpful for resolving the lack of genomic information in the Haliotidae family as well as providing more opportunities for understanding gastropod evolution.
Yersinia enterocolitica is a well-known foodborne pathogen causing gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The strain Y. enterocolitica FORC_002 was isolated from the gill of flatfish (plaice) and its genome was sequenced. The genomic DNA consists of 4,837,317 bp with a GC content of 47.1%, and is predicted to contain 4,221 open reading frames, 81 tRNA genes, and 26 rRNA genes. Interestingly, genomic analysis revealed pathogenesis and host immune evasionassociated genes encoding guanylate cyclase (Yst), invasin (Ail and Inv), outer membrane protein (Yops), autotransporter adhesin A (YadA), RTX-like toxins, and a type III secretion system. In particular, guanylate cyclase is a heat-stable enterotoxin causing Yersinia-associated diarrhea, and RTX-like toxins are responsible for attachment to integrin on the target cell for cytotoxic action. This genome can be used to identify virulence factors that can be applied for the development of novel biomarkers for the rapid detection of this pathogen in foods.
The history of African indigenous cattle and their adaptation to environmental and human selection pressure is at the root of their remarkable diversity. Characterization of this diversity is an essential step towards understanding the genomic basis of productivity and adaptation to survival under African farming systems.
We analyze patterns of African cattle genetic variation by sequencing 48 genomes from five indigenous populations and comparing them to the genomes of 53 commercial taurine breeds. We find the highest genetic diversity among African zebu and sanga cattle. Our search for genomic regions under selection reveals signatures of selection for environmental adaptive traits. In particular, we identify signatures of selection including genes and/or pathways controlling anemia and feeding behavior in the trypanotolerant N’Dama, coat color and horn development in Ankole, and heat tolerance and tick resistance across African cattle especially in zebu breeds.
Our findings unravel at the genome-wide level, the unique adaptive diversity of African cattle while emphasizing the opportunities for sustainable improvement of livestock productivity on the continent.
Africa is home to numerous cattle breeds whose diversity has been shaped by subtle combinations of human and natural selection. African Sanga cattle are an intermediate type of cattle resulting from interbreeding between Bos taurus and Bos indicus subspecies. Recently, research has asserted the potential of Sanga breeds for commercial beef production with better meat quality as compared to Bos indicus breeds. Here, we identified meat quality related gene regions that are positively selected in Ankole (Sanga) cattle breeds as compared to indicus (Boran, Ogaden, and Kenana) breeds using cross-population (XP-EHH and XP-CLR) statistical methods.
We identified 238 (XP-EHH) and 213 (XP-CLR) positively selected genes, of which 97 were detected from both statistics. Among the genes obtained, we primarily reported those involved in different biological process and pathways associated with meat quality traits. Genes (CAPZB, COL9A2, PDGFRA, MAP3K5, ZNF410, and PKM2) involved in muscle structure and metabolism affect meat tenderness. Genes (PLA2G2A, PARK2, ZNF410, MAP2K3, PLCD3, PLCD1, and ROCK1) related to intramuscular fat (IMF) are involved in adipose metabolism and adipogenesis. MB and SLC48A1 affect meat color. In addition, we identified genes (TIMP2, PKM2, PRKG1, MAP3K5, and ATP8A1) related to feeding efficiency. Among the enriched Gene Ontology Biological Process (GO BP) terms, actin cytoskeleton organization, actin filament-based process, and protein ubiquitination are associated with meat tenderness whereas cellular component organization, negative regulation of actin filament depolymerization and negative regulation of protein complex disassembly are involved in adipocyte regulation. The MAPK pathway is responsible for cell proliferation and plays an important role in hyperplastic growth, which has a positive effect on meat tenderness.
Results revealed several candidate genes positively selected in Ankole cattle in relation to meat quality characteristics. The genes identified are involved in muscle structure and metabolism, and adipose metabolism and adipogenesis. These genes help in the understanding of the biological mechanisms controlling beef quality characteristics in African Ankole cattle. These results provide a basis for further research on the genomic characteristics of Ankole and other Sanga cattle breeds for quality beef.