Previous studies of horse RNA-seq were performed by mapping sequence reads to the reference genome during transcriptome analysis. However in this study, we focused on two main ideas. First, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by de novo?based analysis (DBA) in RNA-seq data from six Thoroughbreds before and after exercise, here-after referred to as “de novo unique differentially expressed genes” (DUDEG). Second, by integrating both conventional DEGs and genes identified as being selected for during domestication of Thoroughbred and Jeju pony from whole genome re-sequencing (WGS) data, we give a new concept to the definition of DEG. We identified 1, 034 and 567 DUDEGs in skeletal muscle and blood, respectively. DUDEGs in skeletal muscle were significantly related to exercise-induced stress biological process gene ontology (BP-GO) terms: ‘immune system process’; ‘response to stimulus’; and, ‘death’ and a KEGG pathways: ‘JAK-STAT signaling pathway’; ‘MAPK signaling pathway’; ‘regulation of actin cytoskeleton’; and, ‘p53 signaling pathway’. In addition, we found TIMELESS, EIF4A3 and ZNF592 in blood and CHMP4C and FOXO3 in skeletal muscle, to be in common between DUDEGs and selected genes identified by evolutionary statistics such as FST and Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (XP-EHH). Moreover, in Thoroughbreds, three out of five genes (CHMP4C, EIF4A3 and FOXO3) related to exercise response showed relatively low nucleotide diversity compared to the Jeju pony. DUDEGs are not only conceptually new DEGs that cannot be attained from reference-based analysis (RBA) but also supports previous RBA results related to exercise in Thoroughbred. In summary, three exercise related genes which were selected for during domestication in the evolutionary history of Thoroughbred were identified as conceptually new DEGs in this study.
Due to the lack of statistical power and confounding effects of population structure in human population data, genotype-environment interaction studies have not yielded promising results and have provided only limited knowledge for exploring how genotype and environmental factors interact to in their influence onto risk.
We analyzed 49 human quantitative traits in 7, 170 unrelated Korean individuals on 326, 262 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) collected from the KARE (Korean Association Resource) project, and we estimated the statistically significant proportion of variance that could be explained by genotype-area interactions in the supra-iliac skinfold thickness trait ( http://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1471-2156-15-18/MediaObjects/12863_2013_1203_IEq1_HTML.gif ?=?0.269 and P?=?0.00032), which is related to abdominal obesity. Data suggested that the genotypes could have different effects on the phenotype (supra-iliac skinfold thickness) in different environmental settings (rural vs. urban areas). We then defined the genotype groups of individuals with similar genetic profiles based on the additive genetic relationships among individuals using SNPs. We observed the norms of reaction, and the differential phenotypic response of a genotype to a change in environmental exposure. Interestingly, we also found that the gene clusters responsible for cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions were enriched significantly for genotype-area interaction.
This significant heritability estimate of genotype-environment interactions will lead to conceptual advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying genotype-environment interactions, and could be ultimately applied to personalized preventative treatments based on environmental exposures."
Marbling is an important trait in characterization beef quality and a major factor for determining the price of beef in the Korean beef market. In particular, marbling is a complex trait and needs a system-level approach for identifying candidate genes related to the trait. To find the candidate gene associated with marbling, we used a weighted gene coexpression network analysis from the expression value of bovine genes. Hub genes were identified; they were topologically centered with large degree and BC values in the global network. We performed gene expression analysis to detect candidate genes in M. longissimus with divergent marbling phenotype (marbling scores 2 to 7) using qRT-PCR. The results demonstrate that transmembrane protein 60 (TMEM60) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) are associated with increasing marbling fat. We suggest that the network-based approach in livestock may be an important method for analyzing the complex effects of candidate genes associated with complex traits like marbling or tenderness.
Recent studies in population of European ancestry have shown that 30%∼50% of heritability for human complex traits such as height and body mass index, and common diseases such as schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis, can be captured by common SNPs and that genetic variation attributed to chromosomes are in proportion to their length. Using genome-wide estimation and partitioning approaches, we analysed 49 human quantitative traits, many of which are relevant to human diseases, in 7, 170 unrelated Korean individuals genotyped on 326, 262 SNPs. For 43 of the 49 traits, we estimated a nominally significant (P<0.05) proportion of variance explained by all SNPs on the Affymetrix 5.0 genotyping array (). On average across 47 of the 49 traits for which the estimate of is non-zero, common SNPs explain approximately one-third (range of 7.8% to 76.8%) of narrow sense heritability.
The estimate of is highly correlated with the proportion of SNPs with association P<0.031 (r2?=?0.92). Longer genomic segments tend to explain more phenotypic variation, with a correlation of 0.78 between the estimate of variance explained by individual chromosomes and their physical length, and 1% of the genome explains approximately 1% of the genetic variance. Despite the fact that there are a few SNPs with large effects for some traits, these results suggest that polygenicity is ubiquitous for most human complex traits and that a substantial proportion of the “missing heritability” is captured by common SNPs.
In total, 166 individuals from five indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations - Ambo (n = 27), Borana (n = 35), Arsi (n = 30), Horro (n = 36), and Danakil (n = 38) - were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40) were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ≥0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ≥0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (F ST; 1%) in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, F ST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine) and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (F ST) among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, principal component analysis, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed.
Since pluripotent embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines were first derived from the mouse, tremendous efforts have been made to establish ESC lines in several domestic species including the pig; however, authentic porcine ESCs have not yet been established. It has proven difficult to maintain an ESC-like state in pluripotent porcine cell lines due to the frequent occurrence of spontaneous differentiation into an epiblast stem cell (EpiSC)-like state during culture. We have been able to derive EpiSC-like porcine ESC (pESC) lines from blastocyst stage porcine embryos of various origins, including in vitro fertilized (IVF), in vivo derived, IVF aggregated, and parthenogenetic embryos. In addition, we have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) via plasmid transfection of reprogramming factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) into porcine fibroblast cells. In this study, we analyzed characteristics such as marker expression, pluripotency and the X chromosome inactivation status in female of our EpiSC-like pESC lines along with our piPSC line. Our results show that these cell lines demonstrate the expression of genes associated with the Activin/Nodal and FGF2 pathways along with the expression of pluripotent markers Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, SSEA4, TRA 1?60 and TRA 1?81. Furthermore all of these cell lines showed in vitro differentiation potential, the X chromosome inactivation in female and a normal karyotype. Here we suggest that the porcine species undergoes reprogramming into a primed state during the establishment of pluripotent stem cell lines.
The modern horse (Equus caballus) is the product of over 50 million yrs of evolution. The athletic abilities of the horse have been enhanced during the past 6000 yrs under domestication. Therefore, the horse serves as a valuable model to understand the physiology and molecular mechanisms of adaptive responses to exercise. The structure and function of skeletal muscle show remarkable plasticity to the physical and metabolic challenges following exercise. Here, we reveal an evolutionary layer of responsiveness to exercise-stress in the skeletal muscle of the racing horse. We analysed differentially expressed genes and their co-expression networks in a large-scale RNA-sequence dataset comparing expression before and after exercise. By estimating genome-wide dN/dS ratios using six mammalian genomes, and FST and iHS using re-sequencing data derived from 20 horses, we were able to peel back the evolutionary layers of adaptations to exercise-stress in the horse. We found that the oldest and thickest layer (dN/dS) consists of system-wide tissue and organ adaptations. We further find that, during the period of horse domestication, the older layer (FST) is mainly responsible for adaptations to inflammation and energy metabolism, and the most recent layer (iHS) for neurological system process, cell adhesion, and proteolysis.
Adipocytes mainly function as energy storage and endocrine cells. Adipose tissues showed the biological and genetic difference based on their depots. The difference of adipocytes between depots might be influenced by the inherent genetic programing for adipogenesis. We used RNA-seq technique to investigate the transcriptomes in 3 adipose tissues of omental (O), subcutaneous (S) and intramuscular (I) fats in cattle. Sequence reads were obtained from Illumina HiSeq2000 and mapped to the bovine genome using Tophat2. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) between adipose tissues were detected by EdgeR. We identified 5797, 2156, and 5455 DEGs in the comparison between OI, OS, and IS respectively and also found 5657 DEGs in the comparison between the intramuscular and the combined omental and subcutaneous fats (C) (FDR<0.01). Depot specifically up- and down- regulated DEGs were 853 in S, 48 in I, and 979 in O. The numbers of DEGs and functional annotation studies suggested that I had the different genetic profile compared to other two adipose tissues. In I, DEGs involved in the developmental process (eg. EGR2, FAS, and KLF7) were up-regulated and those in the immune system process were down-regulated. Many DEGs from the adipose tissues were enriched in the various GO terms of developmental process and KEGG pathway analysis showed that the ECM-receptor interaction was one of commonly enriched pathways in all of the 3 adipose tissues and also functioned as a sub-pathway of other enriched pathways. However, genes involved in the ECM-receptor interaction were differentially regulated depending on the depots. Collagens, main ECM constituents, were significantly up-regulated in S and integrins, transmembrane receptors, were up-regulated in I. Different laminins were up-regulated in the different depots. This comparative transcriptome analysis of three adipose tissues suggested that the interactions between ECM components and transmembrane receptors of fat cells depend on the depot specific adipogenesis.
Although there have been many studies of native Korean cattle, Hanwoo, there have been no selective sweep studies in these animals. This study was performed to characterize genetic variation and identify selective signatures. We sequenced the genomes of 12 cattle, and identified 15125420 SNPs, 1768114 INDELs, and 3445 CNVs. The SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs were similarly distributed throughout the genome, and highly variable regions were shown to contain the BoLA family and GPR180, which are related to adaptive immunity. We also identified the domestication footprints of the Hanwoo population by searching for selective sweep signatures, which revealed the RCN2 gene related to BPV resistance. The results of this study may contribute to genetic improvement of the Hanwoo population in Korea.
The gene order on the X chromosome of eutherians is generally highly conserved, although an increase in the rate of rearrangement has been reported in the rodent lineage. Conservation of the X chromosome is thought to be caused by selection related to maintenance of dosage compensation. However, we herein reveal that the cattle (Btau4.0) lineage has experienced a strong increase in the rate of X-chromosome rearrangement, much stronger than that previously reported for rodents. We also show that this increase is not matched by a similar increase on the autosomes and cannot be explained by assembly errors. Furthermore, we compared the difference in two cattle genome assemblies: Btau4.0 and Btau6.0 (Bos taurus UMD3.1). The results showed a discrepancy between Btau4.0 and Btau6.0 cattle assembly version data, and we believe that Btau6.0 cattle assembly version data are not more reliable than Btau4.0.